In The Big Bang Theory- The Luminous Fish Effect (S01E04) Sheldon points out that multi-vitamins are just a recipe for expensive urine.
This sentence absolutely is true. Years of research has failed to find any considerable evidence that vitamins and supplements do any significant good. In fact, recent studies have shown that certain vitamins may actually be bad for you.
Here is the list of vitamins and supplements you should take and not take.
Vitamin A and B – Don’t take it.Vitamin to usually taken to boost your immune system. From time back it’s believe that we should take extra Vitamin A and B for Vitamin A to protect your vision; Vitamin B to keep you energize. Studies have shown that if you are eating healthy diet, then you are getting your daily supply of Vitamin A and B naturally from food and consuming them in excess can actually cause harm to your body. A large 2012 study found that women who took them in the long-term actually had a higher overall risk of death than those who did not.
Vitamin B3: Skip it. You can get your daily recommended Vitamin B3 by eating salmon, tuna, or beets instead. For years, vitamin B3 was promoted to treat everything from Alzheimer's to heart disease. But recent studies have called for an end to the over-prescription of the nutrient. Studies have shown that people who took the B3 supplements were more to develop infections, liver problems, and internal bleeding.
Vitamin C: Skip it – You can get enough of it by eating citrus fruit. Strawberries are packed with the nutrient. Also it also doesn’t help you get over your cold. Study after study has shown that vitamin C does little to nothing to prevent the common cold. And mega doses of 2,000 mg or more can raise your risk of painful kidney stones.
Vitamin D: Take it — It helps keep your bones strong and it's hard to get from food. Vitamin D isn't present in most of the foods we eat. Our bodies produce it with the help of sunlight which can get tougher in winters. Vitamin D is a critical ingredient that keeps our bones strong by helping us absorb calcium. Studies have found that people who took vitamin D supplements daily lived longer, on average, than those who didn't.
Vitamin E: Skip it — You can get it enough by eating spinach, and an excess has been linked to an increased risk of certain cancers. A large study of men found that the risk of prostate cancer actually increased among the men taking vitamin E compared to the men taking a placebo.
And another 2005 study linked high doses of vitamin E with an overall higher risk of death. Skip the pill by taking spinach salad.
Antioxidants: Skip them — Vitamins A, C, and E are all antioxidants found in plentiful form in many fruits (especially berries). Excess of these has been linked to an increased risk of certain cancers. Studies suggest that when taken in excess, antioxidants can actually be harmful. A large long-term study of male smokers found that those who regularly took vitamin A were more likely to get lung cancer than those who didn't. As long as you eat fruits and berries regularly you are food.
Probiotics: Skip it — Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are good for your health, especially your digestive system. You can get enough by eating yogurt.
Zinc: Take it — it's one of the only ingredients linked with a shortened cold.Zinc is found in a wide variety of foods. You can get recommended amounts of zinc by eating a variety of foods including the following: Oysters, which are the best source of zinc. Red meat, poultry, seafood such as crab and lobsters, and fortified breakfast cereals, which are also good sources of zinc.Unlike vitamin C, which studies have found likely does nothing to prevent or treat the common cold, zinc may actually be worth it. The mineral seems to interfere with the replication of rhinoviruses, the bugs that cause the common cold.
In a 2011 review of studies of people who'd recently gotten sick, researchers looked at those who'd started taking zinc and compared them with those who just took a placebo. The ones on the zinc had shorter colds and less severe symptoms.
Folic Acid: Take it if you're pregnant or if you might want to get pregnant. Folic acid is a B vitamin which our bodies use to make new cells. Studied have linked have linked folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy with decreased rates of neural-tube defects (NTD), serious and life-threatening birth defects of the baby's brain, spine, or spinal cord. The National Institutes of Health recommends that women who are currently pregnant or who want to get pregnant should take 400 micrograms of folic acid daily because their bodies demand more of this key nutrient when they are carrying a growing fetus.